The cathedral of Rome being the first of four papal basilicas, founded in between 311 and 314, it is the oldest in the world, in fact, its construction precedes by about fourteen that of St. Peter's Basilica. San Giovanni was architected by Constantine on land owned by the noble family of the Lateran that takes its name from the area. Repeatedly damaged and restored, it was constantly enriched over the centuries. The main facade, built in 1732, was even designed by Alessandro Galilei and is truly stunning with its long hall and the porch light. The interior has five naves and I recommend you to look closely at the ceiling because of a show so you will not see in any other church. In the nave, in some niches you will find the statues of the twelve apostle’s works by various artists on intervention Borromiti.
Next to the Basilica lies the Lateran Palace, built in the late sixteenth century by Pope Sixtus V, who was until 1309 in the official residence of the Pope different. Now the building is home to the Vicariate of Rome. Piazza of Porta San Giovanni, in front of the Basilica, is a show in the open. It cannot pass unnoticed by the red granite obelisk that stands in the centre of the square. It is more than 30 meters high and is probably the largest in existence. The obelisk was brought to Rome from Egypt in 357 and was placed at the Circus Maximus. Found in 1587 was broken into three pieces and by the will of Pope Sixtus V was erected in Piazza San Giovanni after a year.
Now the famous square is the stage of the great concert that is held every May, in honour of Labour Day weekend, if you manage to match the visit to the Basilica during May to see really big event singing the union of "sacred with the profane"! San Giovanni can be visited with free of charge every day from 7:00 to 18:30.
Worth a visit to the museum and the cloister.The Catholic Archbasilica of St. John within the site (Italian: Arci basilica Papale di San Giovanni in Laterano), unremarkably referred to as St. John site's Archbasilica, St. John Lateran's Basilica, St. John Lateran, or simply The site Basilica, is the cathedral church of the bishopric of Rome and also an official religion seat of the Bishop of Rome, who is the Pope.
It is the oldest and ranks initial among the five Catholic Basilicas of the globe and also the four Major Basilicas of Rome (all of that also are Catholic basilicas), being the oldest church within the West and having the throne of the Bishop of Rome. It's the title of ecumenical mother church among Roman Catholics. The present primate is Agostino Vallini, Cardinal Vicar General for the bishopric of Rome. The President of the European country, presently François Hollande, is ex-officer for the "first and solely unearned canon" of the Archbasilica, a title control by the heads of state of France since King Bolingbroke.
The large inscription on the façade reads in Latin: Clemens XII Pont GHB Anno V Christo Salvatori In Hon SS Ioan Bapt et Evang; that an extremely abbreviated inscription translated as "Pope Clement XII, within the fifth year of his reign, dedicated this building to Christ the Savior, in honour of Saints John the Benedictine and the Evangelist". This is often a result of the Archbasilica, as indicated by its full title was authentically dedicated to Christ the Savior, with the co-dedications to the 2nd St. Johns being created centuries later. Because of a cathedral of the Bishop of Rome, it ranks especially different churches within the Christian church, as well as St. Peter's Basilica.
The Archbasilica is found at intervals town of Rome, however, is outside the boundaries of Citta del Vaticano correct, that is found in another part of Rome. Whereas the Archbasilica and its adjacent buildings get pleasure from extraterritorial standing jointly of the properties of the European country consistent to the covenant of 1929, the Archbasilica is at intervals Italian territory and not that of the Citta Del Vaticano State.